Abstract - Ways of performing the judo throws and their efficiency during All-Japan Judo Championships at open weight category
Background. Kano Jigoro, one of the founders of judo, developed an official classification of judo techniques which is currently being modernized by the Japanese Kodokan Judo Institute. There is no indication that earlier individual attempts in this area have been carried out in Japan. Judo masters including Kano, Koizumi, Kudo, Mifune, Tomiki and others have tried to introduce additional criteria to the classification.
The need for so many modifications is a result of the many sport and referee rule changes, as well as to ensure the safety of competitors and to increase the attractiveness of judo contests. Purpose of the work. The purpose of this work was to determine the ways of performing the judo throws and their efficiency during All-Japan Judo Championships at open weight category.
Material/methods. 278 open category judo players were recorded during the All-Japan Judo Championships (2003-2012). The competitors successfully executed 252 attacks using 34 judo throws classified by the Kodokan Judo. Effective attacks divided by: uchi - reaping legs from inside, soto - hooking/reaping opponents’ legs from outside, otoshi – throws performed by dropping body, gaeshi – throws performed as counterattacks, tsurikomi – throws performed by pull-lifting with hands, harai – throws performed by sweeping with legs or hips and makikomi – throws performed by winding the opponent’s body, were distinguished. The sequence of dominant techniques was presented by the “K” index, and the directions and ways of performing the throws were determined by the efficiency attack index.
Results. The most effective Japanese competitors performed three throws by UCHI: uchimata, ouchi gari, kouchi gari, and three throws by SOTO: osoto gari, kosoto gake, kosoto gari. The following throwing techniques, during the Championships, were dominant: uchimata, ouchi gari and osoto gari which ended the contests by ippon (before contest time had elapsed); they were most often executed successfully, and the competitors gained most referee’s points. The observed competitors demonstrated even effectiveness in executing throws, forward – breaking balance onto tip-toes, and backward – breaking balance onto heels. Comparatively effectively, they performed throws into the four analyzed directions.
Conclusions. The Japanese competitors performed the most effective attacks by using leg throws which call for the reaping actions of legs either from inside or outside UCHI and SOTO. Fewer techniques, executed perfectly resulted in gaining more referee’s points. Using these techniques put the competitors in a better position to carry out attacks and changing their direction